Baking Powder

1 teaspoon

1 teaspoon baking soda + 1/2 teaspoon cream of tartar

Balsamic Vinegar

1 tablespoon

1 tablespoon sherry or cider vinegar


1 cup

1 cup non-alcoholic beer, apple cider

Bread Crumbs, dry

1/4 cup

1/4 cup finely crushed cracker crumbs, corn flakes

Brown Sugar, packed

1 cup

1 cup granulated sugar or 2 cups powdered sugar

Broth, chicken or vegetable

1 cup

1 teaspoon or 1cube bouillon granules (chicken or vegetable), dissolved in 1cup of boiling water


Any amount


Buttermilk, or sour milk

1 cup

1 tablespoon lemon juice or white vinegar plus enough milk to make the amount 1 cup. Let the paneer come out & you will get sour milk.

Chocolate, semisweet chips

1 cup

6 ounces semisweet baking chocolate, chopped

Chocolate, unsweetened, baking

1 ounce

3 tablespoons baking cocoa plus 1 tablespoon shortening or margarine


1 tablespoon

2 tablespoons all-purpose flour

Corn Syrup, light

1 cup

1 cup sugar plus 1/4 cup water

Corn Syrup, dark

1 cup

1 cup light corn syrup; or 3/4 cup light corn syrup plus 1/4 cup molasses


1 large

2 tablespoons of liquid (milk, water, or OJ)

 2 tablespoons flour

  tablespoon shortening

  teaspoon baking powder

Farmer Cheese


Cottage cheese, ricotta, cream cheese

Flour, self-rising

1 cup

1 cup of all-purpose flour minus 2 teaspoons plus

 1 1/2 teaspoons baking powder and

 1/2 teaspoon salt   Then, mix to combine.

Garlic, finely chopped

1 medium clove

1/8 teaspoon garlic powder

Ginger, grated or chopped

1 teaspoon

3/4 teaspoon ground ginger

Heavy Cream

1 cup

3/4 cup milk plus 1/3 cup butter or 3/4 cup milk plus 1/4 cup shortening/butter or 2/3 cup evaporated milk.


1 cup

1-1/4 cups sugar plus 1/4 cup water of apple juice

Lemon Juice, fresh

1 whole lemon

3 tablespoons of lemon juice concentrate

Lemon Juice, fresh

1 tablespoon

1 tablespoon bottled lemon juice from concentrate, or white vinegar

Light Cream

1 cup

1/2 cup heavy cream plus 1/2 cup milk or  7/8 cup milk plus 3 Tbsp. butter or   1/2 cup evaporated milk plus 1/2 cup milk.

Milk, regular or low-fat

1 cup

1/2 cup evaporated milk plus 1/2 cup water

Mustard seeds

1 tablespoon

1 teaspoon ground mustard (dry)

Onion Juice

1 tablespoon

1/3 tsp. onion powder or 3/4 tsp. minced dried onion or 1/4 tsp. onion paste.

Onion Powder

1 tablespoon

2 tbsp. minced dried onion or 2 tsp. onion paste or 5 tbsp. onion juice.


1/2 cup

1/2 cup currants, dried cherries, dried cranberries, chopped dates

Red Pepper Sauce

3-4 drops

1/8 teaspoon ground red pepper (cayenne)


1 cup dry white

1 cup dry brown

3 cups cooked

4 cups cooked

Rice, white cooked

2 cups

3/4 cups uncooked

Ricotta Cheese


Cottage cheese, liquid drained or cream cheese in small amounts.

Sour Cream

1 cup

2 Tbsp. white vinegar plus enough milk to make 1 cup, let stand 5 minutes before using or   1 tbsp. lemon juice and enough evaporated milk to make 1 cup/1 cup plain yogurt or cottage cheese mixed with yogurt and if desired, 2 Tbsp. milk and 1 Tbsp. lemon juice, blend well or 6 oz cream cheese and 3 Tbsp. milk.

Tomato Juice

1 cup

2 - 3 ripe tomatoes, peeled, blended in food processor with salt and lemon juice to taste; 1/2 cup tomato sauce plus 1/2 cup water

Tomato Puree


Tomato sauce or 1/3 cup tomato paste plus 1/2 cup water.

Tomato Sauce

2 cups

3/4 cup tomato paste plus 1 cup water or 2 cups tomato puree.

Tomato paste

1 tbsp.

1/4 cup tomato sauce plus eliminate some other liquid from the recipe.

Tomatoes, canned

1 cup

About 1-1/3 cups cut-up fresh tomatoes, simmered 10 minutes

Whipping Cream

1 cup, sweetened

4 oz package frozen whipped cream topping or 1 cup nonfat dry milk powder whipped with 1 cup ice water and sweetened to taste.

Yeast, regular

1 package (1/4 ounce)

2-1/4 teaspoons regular

Yogurt, plain

1 cup

1 cup sour cream